Assessment of student learning provides evidence so that sound educational decisions can be made. Building Permits. Irshad Narejo. 4. It is the degree to which evidence, common sense, or theory supports any interpretations or conclusions about a student based on his/her test performance. Evaluation is necessary to determine the quality of the test and the quality of the responses. You should give students an exam question for each crucial concept that they must understand. 5. Checking the reliability of the final test 5. However, the general rule is “adapt rather than adopt.” Existing items will rarely fit your specific needs; you should tailor them to more adequately reflect your objectives. A high positive ratio indicates the high discriminating power. Planning 2. 1. Part of Springer Nature. Design Process Prepare Estimation and Budgets. In addition, detailed guidelines are provided for writing different item formats. Evaluation process also estimates to what extent a test is consistent from one measurement to other. Design your questions so that all students can answer at their own levels. The teacher should talk as less as possible. Finally there is Checking the validity of the final test 6. Therefore the items should not be so easy that everyone answers it correctly and also it should not be so difficult that everyone fails to answer it. Once the item analysis process is over we can get a list of effective items. 6. He knows that the development of a good psychological test requires six essential steps: 1. McKeachie (2010) only half-jokes that “Unfortunately, it appears to be generally true that the examinations that are the easiest to construct are the most difficult to grade.” The inverse is also true: time spent constructing a clear exam will save time in the grading of it. Beware of using answers such as “none of these” or “all of the above.”. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Quality of the responses means which items are misfit in the test. Here are a few additional guidelines to keep in mind when writing multiple-choice tests: Conventional wisdom accurately portrays short-answer and essay examinations as the easiest to write and the most difficult to grade, particularly if they are graded well. So the test maker should prepare a comprehensive scoring procedure along with the test items. IU Bloomington. 0000005069 00000 n 0000003840 00000 n Test construction is the set of activities involved in developing and evaluating a test of some psychological function. Indiana University Bloomington Therefore while construct­ing a test item careful step must be taken to avoid most of these clues. Test items should be free from racial, ethnic and sexual biasness: The items should be universal in nature. Make sure the correct answer is not given away by its being noticeably shorter, longer, or more complex than the distractors. (For more information on summative assessment, see the CITL resource on formative and summative assessment. test construction. Any other factor that may affect the testing procedure should be controlled. Item analysis procedure gives special emphasis on item difficulty level and item discriminating power. For essay type items separate instructions for scoring each learning objective may be provided. 3.1). So that the test maker should provide the procedure for scoring the answer scripts. Items used in the test construction can broadly be divided into two types like objective type items and essay type items. The item analysis procedure follows the following steps: 1. Therefore there must be a written instruction about the purpose of the test before the test items. trailer Therefore before going to prepare any test we must keep in mind that: (2) What content areas should be included and. Planning the Test 2. 0000003940 00000 n Quality of the test implies that how good and dependable the test is? In matching items what is the basis of matching the premises and responses (states with capital or country with produc­tion) should be given. Evaluating the Test. The following principles help in preparing relevant test items. Preparation of Table of Specification/Blue Print: Preparation of table of specification is the most important task in the planning stage. Make sure that the essay question is specific enough to invite the level of detail you expect in the answer. E��ޠ�ی� Step # 1. Each type of test item need special care for construction. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. In the essay type items clear direction must be given about the types of responses expected from the pupils. While portraying a role all the facilities of the society should be given equal importance. 7 Stages of test construction This chapter begins by briefly laying down a set of general procedures for test construction. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. (3) What types of test items are to be included. Table showing weightage given to different content areas: The third important step in preparing table of specification is to decide appropriate item types. 2. The main goal of evaluation process is to collect valid, reliable and useful data about the student. Try out involves two important functions: Administration means ad­ministering the prepared test on a sample of pupils. Physical environment means proper sitting arrangement, proper light and ventilation and adequate space for invigilation, Psychological environment refers to these aspects which in­fluence the mental condition of the pupil. Generally everybody gives attention to the construction of test items. Stages of Test Construction 1. Try out helps us to identify defective and ambiguous items, to determine the difficulty level of the test and to determine the discriminating power of the items. Randall will have to make important decisions about test content, form… Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Consider using small “cases studies,” problems or situations. Therefore care must be taken in preparing a test item. So that the test items must be in accordance with the performance described in the specific learning outcome. For example when the out­come is writing, naming supply type items are useful. A test can be used for different purposes in a teaching learning process. Answers may be recorded on the separate answer sheets or on the test paper itself. In a norm-referenced test the main purpose is to discriminate pupils according to achievement. So that the test should be so designed that there must be a wide spread of test scores. Privacy Policy 8. So that an elaborate design is neces­sary for test construction. Keep aside the other test papers as they are not required in the item analysis. (Author/SLD). This paper addresses four steps in test construction specification: (1) the purpose of the test; (2) the content of the test; (3) the format of the test; and (4) the pool of items. If a book contains 250 pages and 100 test/items (marks) are to be constructed then the weightage will be given as, following: Table 3.2. <]>> Have in mind the processes that you want measured (e.g., analysis, synthesis). 3.1) distractor ‘D’ attracts more pupils from. Therefore attention must be given towards this aspect while preparing a test. The distractors which are not selected at all or very rarely selected should be revised. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Table 3.3 is a model table of specification for X class science. Whether the items functions as intended? Thus a scoring key helps to obtain a consistent data about the pupils’ performance. Diagnostic tests should be prepared with high technique. This paper addresses four steps in test construction specification: (1) the purpose of the test; (2) the content of the test; (3) the format of the test; and (4) the pool of items. If nothing is stated about guessing, then the bold students will guess these items and others will answer only those items of which they are confident. 8�LtuvOQuD{���6-|�Q^�M[���U%����}�>ߚ��[�����c�=A��� �`��BZ �DbF�@_޿��[G� �:��IQ2��)At_wvvC�P��?7� �Ƃ��2A~6�����Y��Σg{reFʓ�*�5g����5c��h���L'���ӕ'`'�/�P���m5"+�C�mCa�����EN�I�'[����0훺�Un���%̥c��r�j�(YG��& Presented by : For example if a test of 100 marks is to be prepared then, the weightage to different topics will be given as following. Presentation on Stagesof Test Construction Presented by : Irshad Narejo 2. TOS 7. Quality Test Construction [Teacher Tools] [Case Studies] A good classroom test is valid and reliable. Content Filtrations 6. Psychology Definition of TEST CONSTRUCTION: the cultivation of a test, generally with a concise or obvious goal to meet the typical standards of validity, dependability, norms, and other aspects of The terms used in the test item should have an universal meaning to all members of group. ‘E’ is a distracter which is not responded by any one. By putting the scoring stencil on the pupils answer script correct answer can be marked. The test item must be free from technical errors and irrelevant clues: Sometimes there are some unintentional clues in the state­ment of the item which helps the pupil to answer correctly.