After the chemical pad, the fabric is steamed for 30–60 s in saturated, slightly superheated, air-free steam.It is essential to avoid condensation falling onto the fabric in the steamer as this causes a spotty colour. The original vat dye is indigo, once obtained only from plants but now often produced synthetically. It may be attained by control of dyeing conditions—that is, by agitation to ensure proper contact between dye liquor and substance being dyed and by use of restraining agents to control rate of dyeing, or strike. Eco-friendly and low-carbon emission productions for dyeing and printing productions are the other important issues concerned in textile industry. A solution 5 g/l of dispersing agent (Setamol WS, commercially available) was made. Moreover, the dyeing must not fade rapidly on exposure to light. In package dyeing, the pigment dispersion must not be filtered out in the packages but rather gradually deposited into the package by salt addition that causes the particles to slowly flocculate. - reducing said anthraquinonoid vat dye composition using a reducing agent. However most these different color dyes have low solubility. 67000), Vat Yellow 2 (CI. The RT of the treatment unit under this condition was approximately 2.7-3 minutes. AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR, Inventor name: Attention should be drawn to the anomaly that in aqueous systems hydrophobic interactions increasingly break down above about 60 °C and many of the synthetic polyamide fibre over-dyeing phenomena are observed when dyeing in boiling aqueous solution. Ve Tic. It turns the insoluble dye to produce weak acidic leuco form. Vosoughi23 concluded that the most important parameters affecting levelness of dyeing in a package dyeing operation could be listed as follows: flow rate (circulation rate) of dye liquor. The ease of migration depends on the fibres and fabric, the solution pick-up and the pigment particle size. Covalent chemical links are brought about in the dyebath by chemical reaction between a fibre-reactive dye molecule, one containing a chemically reactive centre, and a hydroxy group of a cotton fibre, in the presence of alkali. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) In package-dyeing machines dye liquor may be pumped in either of two directions: (1) through the perforated central spindle and outward through the package, or (2) by the reverse path into the outer layers of the package and out of the spindle. The traditional dyeing process is described as a black box, in which the amount of dye on the fabric is not known until the dyeing is completed. This new way of thinking about aromatic interactions15 allowed a ready explanation of the characteristic herringbone packing of aromatic hydrocarbons in the crystalline state21 and also explained the phenylalanine-phenylalanine geometries found in X-ray crystal structure analysis results from certain proteins.22 The maximum electrostatic attraction for two aromatic systems was subsequently calculated as 6 KJ mol–1 which represents only a weak interaction. Predrying is to control migration of the pigment particles to the yarn surfaces where water is evaporating. An additional complication is that fibre structure changes physically and chemically during the boiling process. In the dyeing process the fabric is given the desired color with defined requirements considering color fastness (see Fig. Chavan, in Denim, 2015. Maintain reduced dye in water soluble form. After reduction of the vat pigment, in alkaline solution, the leuco vat acid is precipitated in the presence of a dispersing agent by acidification. The winch is the oldest piece-dyeing machine and takes its name from the slatted roller that moves an endless rope of cloth or endless belt of cloth at full width through the dye liquor. Based on temperature, amount of caustic soda, hydrosulphite and salt, used in dyeing, vat dyes can be classified into 3 main groups . These processes may be accompanied by chemical reactions between the dye molecules and the substrate, for example, in the case of vat, reactive and chrome dyes. Hunter15 points out that such π–π interactions are commonly used to explain interaction between two or more aromatic molecules, but current evidence shows that they are negligible compared to electrostatics.17. These steps create processing shrinkage, which can be defined as the dimensional change that a process adds to or removes from the construction shrinkage of a fabric and thereby changes the residual shrinkage accordingly. Owner name: Vat dye | Why called vat dye | Vat dye properties | Uses of Vat dye | Classification of Vat dye | The 1N (indanthrene normal) group | The IW (indanthrene Warm) group | The IK group | Anthraquinonoid | Indigoid | Dyeing of cotton with vat dye | Vat dyeing recipe | Part 01. 60010), Vat Red 13 (CI. Used for difficult-to-dye, manufactured fibers such as olefin, and for end uses requiring excellent colorfastness. The above observations mean it is important to consider the various types of molecular interactions which may occur in dye–fibre systems. However, the production of textile material with ring effect dyeing has been limited to vat dyes with high solubility, limiting the color of denim fabric. it is applied in large quantity of fabric. The length and width dimensions are both affected, and the fabrics may either be stretched or consolidated. It can be seen that there is not complete agreement among authors who have studied the subject as to the significance of each of the factors affecting the levelness of dyeing. 69825), or Vat Brown 1 (CI. The rate of vatting is very slow at the low starting temperature. As a result, sufficient and uniform preparation and pretreatment can make the dyeing quality more controllable and predictable. 2.Chemical pad steam. The dyeing and finishing processes, along with the apparel manufacturing operation, affect the dimensions of a product. Relative dye concentration (herein after C*) is defined as dye concentration (hereinafter C) divided by factor k, where k is defined as the ratio of formula weight of Indathren Direct Black 5589 (hereinafter FWb) divided by formula weight of Indigo (hereinafter FWi). The present invention provides for a method and apparatus to use all vat dyes, regardless of the solubility, in a continuous process for textile material. Dyes are generally used in combination to achieve a desired hue or fashion shade. spun dyeing, is the process of adding color to the solution before it is extruded through a spinneret.