Chemical: Treat with an insecticide when threshold levels have been reached. Aphids from a M. persicae clone O colony on B. rapa were transferred to the nine plant species as shown in Fig. Transgenic seeds were selected on phosphinothricin (BASTA) or kanamycin. 1969. Taken together, our findings show that beyond a range of pathogens, M. persicae aphids translocate their own transcripts into plants, including a Ya lncRNA that migrates to distal locations within plants, promotes aphid fecundity, and is a member of a previously undescribed host-responsive aphid gene family that operate as virulence factors. Aphids overwinter as eggs on a perennial host. We identified a total of 45,972 transcripts (corresponding to 19,556 genes), including 30,127 transcripts (65.5%; 18,529 genes) annotated previously (22) and 15,845 (34.5%) additional transcripts (SI Appendix, Fig. However, whether these larger parasite RNAs modulate parasite–host interactions is unclear. By growing aphid clones on three different plant species, it was possible for the scientists to find the specific genes that were involved in colonising the different host plants. To identify host-responsive genes, transcriptomes of M. persicae colonies on At, Nb, St, Ps, Pv, Ha, Ci, and Zm were compared with those of the colonies on Br (original host). Although this module was not enriched for DE genes, several CutP genes were significantly DE and, as before (22), were up-regulated on N. benthamiana and down-regulated on B. rapa and A. thaliana. The x/y values above the bars indicate lncRNAs (x) and the total number of transcripts belonging to the module found in the feeding site (y). The y-axis indicates the Ya1 expression levels relative to M. persicae EF reference gene. The finding that M. persicae adjusts to divergent plant species via the coregulation of tandemly repeated gene families was reported earlier for Cathepsin B (CathB), Cuticular Proteins (CutP), and other gene families in host swap experiments involving three plant species: B. rapa, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana (22). Host plants for some aphids can be identified by a particular aphid’s common name. [2], The green peach aphid can be yellowish-green, red, or brown in colour because of morphological difference influenced primarily by the host plants, nutrition and temperature. Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Whereas the mechanism by which Ya1 controls aphid fecundity remains to be determined, our present results indicate that members of the Ya gene family are aphid-specific virulence factors. This suggests that the aphid Ya genes are virulence factors, and that the Ya1 transcript controls aphid performance via the plant. Thus, different attributes were enriched in the darkslateblue module, including expression in the salivary glands, candidate lncRNAs, and tandemly repeated genes. The distal leaf was chosen as described in Mousavi et al. M. persicae clone O achieved a 100% survival rate and established stable colonies on these plant species (SI Appendix, Fig. The candidate lncRNAs in the feeding sites belonged to 10 of the 13 coexpression modules that were found to be enriched for the aforementioned DE genes, one of which was the darkslateblue module (Fig. We greatly appreciate the helpful suggestions of the reviewers and editor that improved the manuscript. Yet, research led by the Earlham Institute and the John Innes Centre, has found that the green peach aphid foregoes this specialisation for a more flexible approach involving turning gene activity ‘up’ or ‘down’ in response to different plant hosts and environments. This site uses cookies. Cui L, Francis F, Heuskin S, Lognay G, Liu Y, Dong J, Chen J, Song X, Liu Y. The remarkable reproductive capacity of the aphid normally overcomes the effects of natural controls in spring when cool temperatures hinder the development of natural enemies. These studies provide evidence that M. persicae is a truly polyphagous/generalist insect species, as this insect has the ability to colonize plant species from different plant families and apparently can perceive the host plant status and adjust its gene expression accordingly.